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Die jüdische Tradition fordert [...], dass jeder Mensch ein Mindestmaß an religiösen und rechtlichen Regeln zu beachten hat. Von den rabbinischen Listen mit wenigen Geboten für alle Nicht-Juden ausgehend, wurden drei Klassen von Heiden abgeleitet:

    der Nochri hält die noachidischen Gebote nicht ein,
    der Ben Noach hält die noachidischen Gebote ein,
    der Ger Toschaw hat vor einem öffentlichen Gerichtshof erklärt, dass er die Noachidischen Gebote einhalten wird. Er darf als Fremder im Heiligen Land wohnen.















The earliest complete rabbinic version of the seven laws can be found in the Tosefta

“     Seven commandments were commanded of the sons of Noah

    concerning adjudication (dinim)
    concerning idolatry (avodah zarah)
    concerning blasphemy (qilelat ha-shem)
    concerning sexual immorality (gilui arayot)
    concerning blood-shed (shefikhut damim)
    concerning robbery (ha-gezel)
    concerning a limb torn from a living animal (eber min ha-hayy)    ”

In one place in his books, Maimonides [a scholar] writes "The gentile must not observe the Sabbath and study the Torah," while in another place he says "If a Noahide wants to observe additional commandments besides the seven basic ones of B'nei Noah, he receives a reward from Heaven, and we (the Jews) must support him in this." Many people quote the first of his statements, not knowing about the existence of the second one. Rav Uri Scherki (and the rabbinical council of the Brit Olam organization) explain this contradiction in Maimonides by saying that the goy and B'nei Noah are different halakhic concepts. A goy is a gentile who has not yet accepted the commandments of B'nei Noah. However, if he has already accepted Seven Laws, he ceases to be a goy and became a B'nei Noah, and as such can follow additional commandments, including keeping the Sabbath and teaching the Torah.

The B'nei Noah movement whose members hold that they can adhere completely to Judaism in order to learn from the Jews and together promote the World to Come (Olam Ha-Ba) but without becoming a part of the Jewish people (i.e. without performing a giyur). After B'nei Noah accept the obligatory seven commandments, they can, if they so desire, carry out the rest of the Jewish commandments, including studying the Torah, observing the Sabbath, celebrating Jewish holidays, etc. This view is held, for example, by Ravi Yoel Schwartz and Rav Uri Scherki.

The seven laws listed by the Mishnah in Sanhedrin 56a are

    Do not worship idols.
    Do not blaspheme G-d.
    Do not murder.
    Do not practice sexual immorality.
    Do not steal.
    Do not eat flesh from a living animal.
    Establish Courts of Justice to build upon these laws

["Sanhedrin 56". Babylonian Talmud. Halakhah.]